The participants of Forex currency market are divided into two groups by their activity and influence on currency rates: market makers and market users. Market makers are large banks and financial organizations which determine the current level of a currency rate, owing to a significant share of their operations in a total volume of the world market. Market makers exercise a constant control of different trading instruments, and they also conduct trades with them. Market makers are market members providing liquidity of particular instruments, making buy or sell orders. These are big international banks and financial institutions, which run daily currency operations of buying or selling trading instruments for more than billions of US dollars. Every market has its own market makers. Similarly, every Forex broker has its personal market makers, the quoting rates of which are exploited by it and offered to its clients further on. Among the greatest market makers such as Deutsche Bank, Mizuho Bank, Barclays Bank, PBS, Citi Bank, Chase Manhattan Bank, Union Bank of Switzerland can be named. In order to define whether the organization is a market maker it is important to consider not only the size of a bank, but also its share in market operations and its capability to influence the market by setting a price policy.
As mentioned before, for a particular market there can be own market maker. Worth pointing out that for the USD/CHF trading instrument the main market makers are Credit Suisse Bank and Union Bank of Switzerland. For trading instruments comprising the Asian currencies the major market maker is the Standard Chartered Bank. As to the rouble instruments, here the top market makers are the International Moscow Bank and the Onexim Bank. The Central Bank of Russia can also play this role being one of the most active participants in setting up the quote rates of currencies vs. the rouble, making different currency interventions, if the rouble rate exceeds the regulated currency rate limits.
Market makers determine the current currency exchange rate by conducting trades with each other as well as with smaller banks, which are also market participants. That is the market makers who introduce quote rates to small banks, organizations and individuals. Thus, another notion emerges characterizing these participants - market users.
Market users are financial organizations, broker companies, small banks and individuals, who use the quoting rate set by market makers for their operations. Market users are not aggressive market players, though a total volume of their operations in the market can be significant, but the share of each one is minor. The role of small market users consists in either acceptance or not of the rates provided by market makers. Consequently, market makers make price and market users take it.